ADHD which is known as Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a condition found in children’s and teenagers who are hyperactive, have a very short attention span, likely to get distracted very easily and are unable to control their impulses.
Hyperactivity has been a part of human life from a long time. Over the years from 1798 to today’s time mental health has been described differently. Sir Alexander Crichton has mentioned in his book “an inquiry into the nature and origin of mental derangement” about ADHD as “mental restlessness”. ADHD was clearly described by George Still in 1902, after that the terms which were used to describe the condition have changed over the years.
ADHD is classified into three conditions;
- ADHD inattentive type,
- ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type
- ADHD combined type.
The treatment of ADHD with the use of stimulants was first described in 1937. The first stimulant to be used in 1934 for the treatment was Benzedrine and was first approved for ADHD in the USA. The use of Modafinil for the treatment of ADHD came way later.
Modafinil is a wakefulness-promoting agent used for the treatment of sleeping disorders. It was originally developed by Lafon Laboratories in France during the attempts in the development of a drug, was nothing but basically sequences were fundamentally a series of benzhydryl sulfinyl compounds which integrated Adrafinil. Later on, in 1998, it was offered for the treatment of narcolepsy. It is considered as the key metabolite of the Adrafinil. Compared to Adrafinil, Modafinil was much safer and effective.
Modafinil is not approved for the use of ADHD, but it is allowed to be taken in smaller quantities for adults. The way Modafinil works have shown signs that it can be used for the treatment of ADHD. Modafinil when taken, networks with a range of neurotransmitter within the brain, whereas the full effect of the drug is still being found.
What is obvious is the fact that Modafinil increases histamine levels which are a major reason it is considered as a wakefulness-promoting agent by the researchers. Histamine is a hormone which regulates our sleep/wake cycle and increase in those levels helps you be alert and awake during the day. Dopamine is one of the neurotransmitters which affects our brain to control our impulses, and is responsible for motivation, goal-directed behavior and focus. Recent studies found a connection between low dopamine levels and ADHD, this could be one of the main reasons Modafinil is associated in the treatment of this disorder.
Subjective information and reviews of Modafinil have stated that it has the effects to improve focus and attention span. User’s state that being on Modafinil they have been more motivated to complete their tasks, this is the main reason which can benefit people suffering from ADHD.
A study in December 2005 in the Pediatrics journal found that Modafinil improved the core ADHD symptoms in children resulting them to be attentive and showed less hyperactive impulses.
Modafinil, when compared with drugs currently used for the treatment ADHD like Adderall and Ritalin, has shown lesser side effects. Unfortunately, when Cephalon applied for the approval of Modafinil to be added for the treatment of ADHD, FDA denied the approval.
It has calculating approximately that 90% Modafinil prescriptions written in the USA are for unapproved purposes. Even though Cephalon has agreed to the FDA to use Modafinil for children, it is still considered effective for adults.